INTRODUCTION: While retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is the leading cause of blindness in children, understanding the pathogenesis and protection from the risk factors are crucial in neonatal practice. In this retrospective study, we aimed to evaluate our clinics incidence and risk factors for ROP cases requiring treatment.
METHODS: Preterm babies with gestational age ≤34 weeks and birth weight ≤1700 g who underwent ROP examination were included in the study. Demographic data, antenatal risk factors, and clinical features of patients with ROP requiring treatment and patients with no treatment requirement were compared. Logistic regression analyses were made to determine independent risk factors.
RESULTS: The study included 214 patients with a median of 1550 g birth weight and 33 weeks of gestational age. Treatment was required for 26 of the patients. BW and GA were significantly lower (p<0.01, p<0.01, respectively), and ventilation support duration, need for resuscitation in the delivery room, surfactant administration, grade ≥2 intraventricular hemorrhage, premature-preterm rupture of membranes, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and need for red blood cell transfusions (p<0.01, p<0.01, p=0.04, p<0.01, p=0.023, p=0.027, p<0.001, p<0.001; respectively) were significantly higher in the treatment-requiring group. Lower gestational age (95% CI: 0.4420.921, p=0.02) and BPD (95% CI: 1.11711.01, p=0.032) are determined as independent risk factors. No patient between BW of 15001700 gr and GA of 3234 weeks required treatment for ROP.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Risk factors must be clearly identified to reduce the incidence of ROP, and the need for treatment and precautions must be taken to prevent preterm babies from developing visual disturbances.