INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate subclinical Vitamin D deficiency and other risk factors in community-acquired pneumonia in children. In addition to the known infectious causes of pneumonia, we wanted to examine whether Vitamin D deficiency, which can change the characteristics of the immune system, is a risk factor for the disease.
METHODS: Ethical approval and study done at Istanbul Medeniyet Uni-versity Göztepe Training and Research Hospital Pediatric Clinic. Fifty-seven hospitalized patients with the diagnosis of pneumonia and 57 healthy controls were chosen for the study. Patients who have an underlying disease were excluded, and groups were compared. Informed consent was obtained, a questionnaire was prepared for the patients including patients demographic, familial, and socioeconomic characteristics, possible factors that may cause pneumonia were questioned. Measurements on a digital scale, infantometer, and stadiometer were used. The measurement of 25(OH)-D3 was performed by the chemiluminescence method in an immunoassay.
RESULTS: The age range was 27.8926.21 months. In the patient group, the number of individuals living in the same house was higher (n: 5.35±2.69 vs. n: 4.11±0.86; p=0.002), the birth weights of subjects (3117.36±390.80 gr vs. 3340.63±501.71 gr; p=0.010), and serum 25(OH)-D3 levels (25.21±13.19 ng/mL vs. 31.97±12.08 ng/mL; p=0.005) were lower compared to the control group. Illiterate mothers in the patient group (21.1% vs. 0.0%; p=0.001) and mothers who graduated from high school in the control group (8.8% vs. 28.1%; p=0.016) were significantly higher. Serum 25(OH)-D3 levels were 25.21±13.19 ng/mL in the patient group and 31.97±12.08 ng/mL in the control group, showing a statistically significant difference between the groups. In the patient group, the mean serum 25(OH)-D3 levels were significantly low (p=0.005). Vitamin D insufficiency was present in 68.42% of the patients.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: In addition to the modifiable risk factors in pneumonia patients, adding Vitamin D supplementation to standard treatment, if necessary, may be effective in reducing the morbidity and mortality of the disease.